Paul Is Sent to Rome
|7 When we had sailed slowly for a good many
days, and with difficulty had arrived off Cnidus,
since the wind did not permit us to go farther,
we sailed under the shelter of
Crete, off Salmone;
Paul Is Sent to Rome
|12 Because the harbor was not suitable for
wintering, the majority reached a decision to
put out to sea from there, if somehow they could
reach Phoenix, a harbor of
Crete, facing southwest and northwest,
and spend the winter there.
Paul Is Sent to Rome
|13 When a moderate south wind came up,
supposing that they had attained their purpose,
they weighed anchor and began sailing along
Crete, close inshore.
|21 When they had gone a long time without
food, then Paul stood up in their midst and
said, "Men, you ought to have followed my advice
and not to have set sail from
Crete and incurred this damage and loss.
Titus left in Crete to appoint Elders
|5 For this reason I left you in
Crete, that you would
set in order what remains and appoint elders in
every city as I directed you,
an island in the Aegean Sea about 140 miles long and 30
is 174 nautical miles
from Piraeus (Athens). It is the largest and most
southern Greek island. We know from Acts 27, that Paul
stopped on Crete en route to Rome after his arrest.
If Paul had been to Crete and established
churches during the period of Acts it no doubt would
have been recorded by Luke. Therefore, it seems clear
that this was done after the close of Acts. If so, then
Paul was liberated from prison for a time. It seems that
he left Crete before the church was fully organized.
When Paul was released from his first Roman
imprisonment, he took Titus (and perhaps Timothy) with
him to Crete to evangelize the island. Paul left Titus
on Crete (1:5) and went to Ephesus, where the apostle
left Timothy en route to Macedonia. Sometime later,
probably from Philippi, he wrote to Titus. Since Titus
church on Crete was newly planted, the main concerns of
Paul were that the believers begin living an exemplary
Christian life and their appointing of proper
leadership. Christianity spread throughout the island
and became established. Fine churches and basilicas were
founded the first Christian church in Crete at Gortyn.
There is evidence of 40 or more basilicas being built
after this period.
one of the first regions of the Greek world to accept
Christianity, with Titus as their bishop. At Gortyn,
the capital of the island during Roman rule, a basilica
dedicated to Titus was built in the 7th century.
believe the Thera volcano caused a tsunami which led to
the Philistines leaving Crete, some going to Cyprus and
others on to Palestine and Egypt.
main city on Crete is Heraklion. The city is also a
major cruise destination.
enormous Archaeological Museum (converted from an old
power station) on one corner of the central Eleftherias
Square, collects together many of the finds from
Knossos, Archanes, Phaestos, Zakros and many other
archeological sites in Crete. The museum spans a period
starting several thousand years ago, through the Minoan,
post-Minoan and later periods.
The Palace of Knossos. 20-25 minutes from the center of
Crete is a huge island
with a large mountain rage, Mount Ida. It is divided
into four departments, those of Chania, Rethymnon,
Heraklion, and Lassithi with 20 provinces, 570
communities and 1447 villages. The boat journey from
Athens takes about 9 hours. The climate is mild, even
in the winter, except at the higher elevations.
The Samaria Gorge is the
longest gorge in Europe (11.2 miles).
The old town of
Heraklion lies within the 16th-century Venetian city
walls. The History Museum tells the islands story from
Byzantine times up to the present day. One of the Minoan
ruins is the palace at Knossos, founded in 2000 BC It
was a vast city of 50,000 inhabitants, destroyed around
1600 BC by earth movements provoked by the volcanic
eruption on Santorini. The highlights here are the
frescoed sanctuary and the royal apartments.
The heat of the long
summers on Crete are cooled by the "Meltemi" a wind
which often reaches gale force particularly in the south
part of the island. The Meltemi wind was known
by the old Greeks as the Etesian northern winds, called
Euraquilo (north easter) or Euroclydon in the Bible, and
results from a high pressure system laying over the
Balkan/Hungary area and a relatively low pressure system
over Turkey.Paul's ship
encountered this kind of bad weather as they approached
the coast of Crete. Paul's voyage to Fair Havens (Kaloi
Limenes) probably took place in the autumn of 61 AD.
Fair Havens is at Crete's southern most point, close to
the ancient city of Gortyn and its port, Lebena. The
town of Lasea mentioned in Acts, was east of Lebena, and
Phoenix, is probably today the village of Loutro.
Despite a busy tourist
industry concentrated along the north coast, Crete has
preserved its unspoiled nature, local traditions and
ancient monuments. The Minoan culture, Europes first
advanced civilization, developed here between 2800 and
1000 BC. When Constantinople fell to the Ottomans in
1453, many artists took refuge on the island, founding
the renowned Cretan School of painters.
Crete is believed to have
been inhabited since the period (6th millennium BC) The
Neolithic was followed by the Bronze age, which English
archeologist, Arthur Evans in the early 1900's, who
excavated the palace at Knossos, called "Minoan" after
the legendary king of Crete, Minos. This civilization
lasted 1500 years from 2600-1100 BC During the
Greco-Roman period 69 BC to 330 A.D. Crete became a
Roman province. The capital at first was at Knossos,
and then transferred to Gortyn, the city that had
offered least resistance to the conqueror. Gortys or
Gortyn is in the plain of Messara. It was a major
Cretan city. The ruins date from the Roman and
Byzantine periods. The first period of Byzantine rule
lasted from 395 A.D. until 824 A.D. During this period
Crete was part of the Byzantine Empire, which had its
capital in Constantinople. It became a separate province
in the empire and had a Byzantine general as its
governor. This allowed Crete to participate in the
building of the Greek Byzantine Empire.
In the 9th century,
Arabs from Spain conquered the island. The Venitian
period followed from 1212-1669. Then the Turkish period
1669-1898. When war broke out between Greece and Turkey
in 1912, Crete became a part of Greece.
There is Scriptural and
archaeological evidence that the Philistines came from
Crete. Caphtorim was mentioned in Gen. 10:14 and
again in Deuteronomy 2:23
and the Avvim, that dwelt in villages as far as Gaza,
the Caphtorim, that came forth out of Caphtor, destroyed
them, and dwelt in their stead.
Jeremiah 47:4, because of the day
that cometh to destroy all the
Philistines, to cut off
from Tyre and Sidon every helper that remaineth: for
Jehovah will destroy the Philistines, the remnant of the
isle of Caphtor.
Are ye not as the children of the Ethiopians unto me, O
children of Israel? saith Jehovah. Have not I brought up
Israel out of the land of Egypt, and the Philistines
from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?
site at which Cretan
archaeology has been excavated for its earliest
occupants is at the site of the palace at Knosos. At
this site deep test pits were dug into the earlier
occupation levels. The most impressive remains of the
Minoan civilization come from the Cretan palaces, like
Knossos and Phaestos. According to Logiadou-Platonos the
archaeological remains suggest the first palaces at
Knossos were destroyed around 1700 BC by a terrible
disaster, but what that disaster was remains unclear.
The second palace center, built on the site of the
first, was reportedly destroyed about 1450 BC by the
volcanic eruption of Thera. Thera, or the modern island
of Santorini, located sixty-nine miles north of the
island of Crete in the Aegean Sea, was devastated by a
volcanic eruption sometime in the 15th century BC. The
actual date of the eruption is a subject of great
debate: It was originally thought to have erupted around
1450 BC, but recent claims are that the eruption
occurred around 1645 BC. What is clear is that the
eruption caused extensive damage not only to the island
itself, but also to the surrounding area. It is the
eruption and its effects that might have caused the
Minoan civilization to fall. The eruption was one the
most powerful in the past 10,000 years and probably
contributed to the fall of the Minoan Civilization.