Paul at Athens
|15 Now those who escorted Paul brought him as far as
Athens; and receiving a command for Silas and
Timothy to come to him as soon as possible, they left. 16 Now while Paul
was waiting for them at Athens, his spirit was
being provoked within him as he was observing the city full of idols.
Sermon on Mars Hill
|22 So Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus and said, "Men of Athens, I
observe that you are very religious in all respects.
23 "For while I was passing through and examining the objects of
your worship, I also found an altar with this inscription,
'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.'
Therefore what you worship in ignorance, this I proclaim to you.
24 "The God who made the world and all things in it, since He is
Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands;
25 nor is He served by human hands, as though He needed anything,
since He Himself gives to all people life and breath and all
26 and He made from one man every nation of mankind to
live on all the face of the earth, having determined their
appointed times and the boundaries of their habitation,
27 that they would seek God, if perhaps they might grope for Him
and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us;
28 for in Him we live and move and exist, as even some of your
own poets have said, 'For we also are His children.'
29 "Being then the children of God, we ought not to think that
the Divine Nature is like gold or silver or stone, an image formed by
the art and thought of man.
30 "Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is
now declaring to men that all people everywhere should repent,
31 because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in
righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished
proof to all men by raising Him from the dead."
32 Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some
began to sneer, but others said, "We shall hear you again concerning
33 So Paul went out of their midst.
34 But some men joined him and believed, among whom also were
Dionysius the Areopagite and a woman named Damaris and others with them.
Paul left for Corinth
|1 After these things he left Athens and
went to Corinth.
|1 Thess. 3:1
Encouragement of Timothy's Visit
|1 Therefore when we could endure it no longer, we thought it best to
be left behind at Athens alone,
Macedonia, Paul came to Athens. When he visited in 49/50 AD, it was a city with
thousands of years of history. The first inhabitants were in the Neolithic
period (7000- 3000 BC), the first Hellenes in 2000 BC. During the Mycenean
period (16th -12th centuries BC), the hill of the Acropols
was fortified. According to tradition, Theseus, King of Athens, created a
unified city state.
The Aeropagus (Mars
Hill, Roman name based on the god of war) where Paul preached the famous
sermon to the Athenians about the "unknown god." The Aeropagus is a
rocky hill located near the access to the Acropolis of Athens. In
594 BC Solon, one of the �Seven Sages� of antiquity,replaced the Draconian law in Athens and laid the foundation for Democracy. He
introduced to Athens the first coinage and a system of weights and measures
Socrates was born in Athens in 469 BC. 460- 451 BC was the war against Sparta and Argos.
The Parthenon was built between 447-433 BC. Temple of Athena Nike was
built in 420 BC. Plato was born in Athens in 428 BC. He founded the
Academy in Athens in 388, the first European University. Aristotle studied
under Plato, tutored Alexander the Great and founded his own school in Athens in
335 BC. In 338 BC Athens was taken by Phillip II.Stoic philosopher Zeno of Citium founded a
school in Athens. Stoicism along with its rival, Epicureanism came to dominate
the thinking of the Hellenistic world, and later, the Roman Empire, with some
elements of Stoic thought even influencing early Christianity. Stoicism is oft
associated with a grim and pessimistic world-view, in contrast to the jolly
Epicureans, who wanted to enjoy the pleasures of life to extreme.
In Greek mythology the primary deity in Athens and on the
Acropolis was Athena, whose cult here was stronger than any other Greek city.
The story goes, that she sprang fully armed from her the head of her father
Zeus. Later she was in a bitter struggle with Poseidon god of the sea, for
rule in Athens.
Standing on the Acropolis you have a panoramic
view of Athens. Most of the monuments still visible on the Acropolis
(which means the highest point of the city), were built in the 2nd half of the
fifth century BC It was the most important religious center for Athens
for centuries. The Parthenon, The Propylaia, the temple of Athena Nike and
the Erechtheon were all erected between 447 and 406 BC
In the Mycenean era the king of Athens had his
palace on the Acropolis, in the 13th century BC After 1100 BC the
administrative center was moved to the Agora below, and the Acropolis into a
religious sanctuary, with Athena as the presiding goddess. Toward the
middle of the 5th century BC, after victory over Persian invaders the
Athenians reconstructed temples and other buildings.
In the Hellenistic and Roman periods, more
statues were put up, but most were plundered or destroyed in the early years of
the Christian era. When Christianity was adopted in Greece, most of the
monumental buildings were converted into churches, but the Turks turned them
into mosques from 1458 to 1821. After the liberation of Greece a start was
made on excavation and restoration. In 1975 a major drive was launched for
the conservation and restoration of all the monuments, which continues today.
There is much construction currently underway throughout the city in preparation
for the 2004 Olympics.
The Third Macedonian War was 172-168 BC. Lucius Aemelius Paulus of Rome defeated Perseus
of Macedon at Pydna. Macedonia was divided into four republics. In 172 BC Roman
invaded Greece Mummius Achaicus attacked Corinth and dissolved the Achaean
league. Rome ruled Greece from 146 BC. Romans led by Sulla sacked Athens in 86
made Athens his capital in 42 BC.
living in Rome in 31 BC to 14 AD were neo-Atticists. They set out to revive the
form of the Attic dialect of the Greek language, later called Koine, that had
been current in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. From the Ionic dialect
developed the Attic, the standard form of classical Greek. It was the language
of Athens and the surrounding district of Attica and differed from the other
Ionic forms chiefly in its contraction of vowels. Because of the political
supremacy of Athens during and after the 5th century
BC and the dominant role of
Athenian art, philosophy, and drama, the Attic dialect superseded all others and
became the chief literary language.
Greece was conquered by Rome,
but Rome stole, copied, and borrowed much of the Greek culture, including the
Koine Greek which was spoken in much of the world. Some have said that Greek
civilization conquered Rome. Thus, Koine Greek became the commercial language of
the Roman Empire. The Greek language is considered by some to have been the
best medium ever known for expressing
theological and philosophical ideas. The principal grammatical differences
between Modern and Ancient Greek are in declension and verbal conjugation. In
declension, Modern Greek has abandoned two basic forms used in Ancient Greek:
the dual, a form indicating that a noun, pronoun, or adjective refers to two
persons or things; and the dative case, which is now used only in a few
Click on pictures for a larger view
The dual form has also been abolished from verbal
conjugation, as have the optative mood (used in antiquity to indicate
doubt or desire) and the infinitive. In place of the specific verb forms
used to denote the various tenses in Ancient Greek, Modern Greek makes
extensive use of auxiliary verbs. The Ancient Greek imperative forms
have been largely replaced by the use of an auxiliary with the
subjunctive form of the verb.
the capital of Greece and the country�s largest city, Athens is
dominated by the flat-topped hill of the Acropolis, site of the
2400-year-old Parthenon, one of the most famous classical monuments in
the world. Close by lie the Theatre of Dionysus and the restored Odeon
of Herodes Atticus Ancient Agora can be visited, as can the
reconstructed Hellenistic Stoa of Attalos, which houses the Agora
at the innermost point of the Saronic Gulf just outside Athens, and
connected to the center by metro, Piraeus is the city�s main port. From
here ferries leave regularly for the Islands. The area surrounding
Athens, known as Attica, is characterized by calm beaches slopes of
Mount Parnes, Hymettus and Pentelico. As one travels northwest, towards
the interior, the landscape combines fertile plains planted with tobacco
and cotton, and rugged mountains, and many olive trees.
In ancient times the
Athenian acropolis was accessed through the propylea � a
monumental gateway. We walked through the ruins of the propylea in order
to reach the top of the acropolis where the great temples are found.
Many Greek cities had an acropolis, especially for purposes of defense.
�was built to house a great statue of Athena.
goddess of knowledge. �Athens� means virgin�s place� or clear virgin�s
wisdom�. Athena was born from the head of Zeus, symbolizing knowledge,
The Parthenon was one
of the best constructed buildings in all of history. The architects and
builders corrected for optical illusions with slight curvatures in order
to gain the appearance of straight lines. The exquisite marble for the
Parthenon came from Pentelicus several miles away. Over the years it has
taken on a golden glow as a result of its iron content. Originally (i.e.
in the 4 century BC) the building and statues were painted.
The friezes of the
Parthenon told the stories of the gods and goddesses who according to
mythology founded the city: North side � citizens with sacrifices on
their way to a festival West side � men and their horses, the Great
Festival South side � war, chariots, travelers. East side � offerings
for Athena. The structure served as a Christian church � approx.
1000 AD - 1400 A.D., it served as a Moslem mosque � 1400 - 1600�s and
was partially destroyed by the Venetians � 1687.
The Erectheon is small
temple that includes the Porch of the Maidens (Caryatids), figures of
women serving as columns. The figures we see today are replacements.
Some of the originals can be seen in the small museum located on the
acropolis. One of the originals is also located at the British Museum in
London along with the "Elgin marbles," figures from the Parthenon
friezes taken to London in the early 19 century by Lord Elgin.
International airport is 17 miles N.E. of Athens. Sounion is 43 miles
Points of interest in Athens include: The Agora � the ancient market place. The word derives
from I speak." Originally it was a place for public speaking and evolved into a
market place. Every town had its Agora. The National Gardens � formerly the
royal gardens at Constitution Square here also are parliament�s palace, tomb of
the unknown soldier. Guards (Efzoni) wear shirts and have pompoms on the shoes.
It is a very formal and ritualized changing of the guard. The Stadium � site of
the revival of the Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.
Acropolis views. Unforgettable nights. The lowest hotel rates in Athens.